Glacier – a high viscosity radio-opaque visible light cured microfilled hybrid composite restorative designed for both anterior and posterior restorations.
- Cook W., Polymerization Shrinkage in Dental Composites, Department of Materials Engineering Monash University, Australia.
- Osborne J. W., Suzuki S., Mirshahidi M., Broome J. C., Leinfelder K. F. In Vitro Three-Body Wear of Posterior Composite. University of Colorado, Denver and University of Alabama, Birmingham.
- Suzuki S., Osborne J. W., Leinfelder K. F., Pre Clinical Screening for Wear of Posterior Composite Resins, Journal of Aesthetic Dentistry. 1996;8(6).
- Knight G. M., The Plum pudding resin restoration,Aesthetic Update, News Bulletin, March 1998; No. 253.
- Baratieri L. N., Ritter A. V., Perdigão J., Felippe L. A., Direct Posterior composite resin restorations: Current concepts for the technique, Practical Periodontics & Aesthetic Dentistry 1998;10(7):875-886.
- Glacier – 1 year Clinical Report, The Dental Advisor, Volume 15, 1998. TDA Recommendation.
- Knight G. M. The Proximal Resin Restoration – An Alternative Technique. Aesthetic Update, ADA News Bulletin, September 1998.
- Filho E. G., An Innovative Direct Technique for Resin Composite Veneers for Teeth with Colour Alterations, Quintessence Int 1998;29:731-735.
- Duke S. E., Robbins J. W., Haveman C., Bradley L., Buikema D. J., Hermesch C., Grekis K., Vandewalle K., A Multicenter Clinical Evaluation of Glacier Composite with the PAAMA 2 Adhesive System, 6-36 Month Reports, Research Facility, University of Texas Health Science Center.
- Glacier, The Dental Advisor Plus, Vol. 16, No. 5, September/October 1996. TDA Plus Recommendation.
- Bishop B., Clinical Trial of Glacier Composite resin (SDI). Dental School, University of Western Australia, May 1996.
- Fahl N., Trans-Surgical restorations of extensive Class IV defects in the anterior definition.
- Sarkar N. K., Iazzetti G., Moiseyeva R., and Cheuk S. C., Strength-Loss Associated with Hydrolytic Degradation of Commercial Composite Resins. LSU School of Dentistry, New Orleans, LA, USA, 1999.
- Dhuru V, Benhamuerlaine M, (Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, USA and King Saud University College of Dentistry, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 2001) Radiopacity of Selected Tooth Colored Restorative Materials.
- Al-Sharaa K. A., Watts D., Stickiness prior to setting of some light cured resin-composites, Dental Materials 19 (2003) 182-187.
- Penugonda B., Evaluation of Expired Composite Materials Efficacy, New York University, USA, Brisbane IADR 2006, Abstract #2127.
- de Araujo Silva Gusmao G. M. A et al.; The influence of storage time and pH variation on water sorption by different composite resins; p60-65, Indian Journal of Dental Research, 24(1) 2013, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil.
Cook W., Polymerization Shrinkage in Dental Composites, Department of Materials Engineering Monash University, Australia.
The aim of this study was to determine the polymerisation shrinkage of a number of commercially available dental composites.
Volume testing of composite samples was completed using a microprocessor controlled gas pycnometer (Micromeritics Accupyc 1330) using a HP He gas supply using a small (20cm) sample holder. The running conditions are shown in the instrument output at the end of this report.
Results show that Glacier possessed the least volumetric shrinkage of the composite resins, with a value of 1.47 ± 0.08%. This value was only two thirds of the nearest rival.
Osborne J. W., Suzuki S., Mirshahidi M., Broome J. C., Leinfelder K. F. In Vitro Three-Body Wear of Posterior Composite. University of Colorado, Denver and University of Alabama, Birmingham.
Using a specially designed three body wear device, Leinfelder, (1991) has shown a strong relationship between in vitro and clinical data on wear. Seven proprietary posterior composite resins were evaluated for generalized wear resistance. These materials included Clearfil Photo Posterior (Kuraray), Ful-Fil (Caulk), Glacier (SDI), Herculite XR (Kerr), LC-MP (SDI), Pertac (ESPE) and Prisma APH (Caulk). Each of these materials (n = 4) were inserted into extracted human molar teeth after first planning the occlusal surface (all enamel) and generating a cylindrical cavity preparation 4 mm in diameter. Manufacturers’ recommendations regarding technique and bonding agents were followed specifically. In each case, the specimens were subjected to masticatory cycling 400,000 times under a load of 75 newtons.
Results show that Glacier was in the top four composite resins that displayed the lowest amount of wear.
Suzuki S., Osborne J. W., Leinfelder K. F., Pre Clinical Screening for Wear of Posterior Composite Resins, Journal of Aesthetic Dentistry. 1996;8(6).
In the past 10 years, composite resin systems have been improved to meet the clinical requirements of posterior restoratives. Ongoing enhancement of the mechanical properties has been achieved by careful selection of the matrix resin/filler formulation as well as the improvement of silane coupling treatment. The composite resin offers improved esthetics as a direct placement posterior restoration when compared to amalgam restorations, and, as such, public demand has increased its use. Wear characteristics have been significantly improved since the first posterior composite resin was introduced in the late 60’s but remain a disadvantage. The clinical evaluation of wear of composite resin restorations is most important but difficult to quantify because there are a variety of factors that influence this characteristic. Clinical trials have the disadvantages of being labour intensive, time consuming, and costly. Therefore, several in vitro testing systems have been developed to simulate clinical wear. An in vitro method of evaluating the wear potential of composite resins has been reported by Leinfelder and others. This evaluation procedure uses a three-body wear system to test screen composite resins prior to clinical testing.
The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro wear of seven commercially available posterior composites already in use for many years. This would make the information obtained clinically relevant to the practitioner, because wear characteristics of restorations already in place could be extrapolated.
The results indicate that Glacier was one of five composites that exhibited the least amount of wear.
Knight G. M., The Plum pudding resin restoration, Aesthetic Update, News Bulletin, March 1998;No. 253.
Public demand for affordable tooth coloured dentistry and improvements in the physical properties of restorative materials, has encouraged more dentists to routinely use composite resins to restore posterior teeth.
The following procedure enables clinicians to produce large composite resin restorations that may include cusp overlays. The resultant restoration will have predictable contact areas and a functional occlusal table within an envelope of protrusive and lateral movements. Furthermore, the technique will save a dentist at least 10 minutes of clinical time with occlusal contouring.
Glacier is recommended as a condensable composite resin for use in this technique.
Baratieri L. N., Ritter A. V., Perdigão J., Felippe L. A., Direct Posterior composite resin restorations: Current concepts for the technique, Practical Periodontics & Aesthetic Dentistry 1998;10(7):875-886
Due to the development of sound clinical procedures and evolution of advanced restorative materials, composite resins are being used with increasing frequency for direct posterior applications. When the clinical protocol for the use of composite resin is performed properly, this material can be utilized with success and predictability. This article presents the advantages and limitations of this restorative modality. It also reviews the characteristics of contemporary composite resin materials and demonstrates the treatment protocol that is utilized to achieve aesthetic restorations in the posterior segment. Over the last decade, the use of composite resins for the direct restoration of posterior teeth has significantly increased due to aesthetic demands and the desire to preserve sound tooth structure during cavity preparations. With the development of adhesive systems and improved restorative resins, composite restorations are predictably successful. In order to restore posterior teeth with direct composite resin, however, the clinician must alter basic treatment concepts that apply to non-adhesive restorative techniques, which include diagnosis, cavity design, pulp protection, and restoration maintenance.
Composite resin restorations are technique sensitive, particularly in the posterior region where access, visibility, and moisture are difficult to control. Despite these challenges, it is evident that composite resins are gaining popularity as the restorative material of choice. The objective of this article is to present updated information related to the use of composite resins for the restoration of the posterior dentition.
Glacier is recommended as a posterior composite with enhanced physical and mechanical properties.
Glacier – 1 year Clinical Report, The Dental Advisor, Volume 15, 1998. TDA Recommendation.
Glacier is a light cured, microfill hybrid composite highly recommended for anterior and posterior restorations. It received a 91% rating.
Glacier received a 91% rating. Consultants who used Glacier initially continued to use it and noted that it was as good as or better than the material they previously used.
Knight G. M. The Proximal Resin Restoration – An Alternative Technique. Aesthetic Update, ADA News Bulletin, September 1998.
This article further develops the concept of applying a bonded sandwich restoration to a proximal lesion as presented in Aesthetic Update (News Bulletin, July 1998).
Glacier is listed as one of the condensable composites best suited for this technique.
Filho E. G., An Innovative Direct Technique for Resin Composite Veneers for Teeth with Colour Alterations, Quintessence Int 1998;29:731-735.
An alternative technique for fabricating resin composite veneers for teeth with colour alterations is presented. The technique is based on research carried out with a silica derivative (coesite). The veneer is applied directly to the mouth. The objective of the technique is to provide greater translucence to the teeth, resulting in a better imitation of the natural appearance.
Glacier is recommended for use for teeth with colour alteration in the dentinal portion, because the resin has a high degree of opacity.
Duke S. E., Robbins J. W., Haveman C., Bradley L., Buikema D. J., Hermesch C., Grekis K., Vandewalle K., A Multicenter Clinical Evaluation of Glacier Composite with the PAAMA 2 Adhesive System, 6-36 Month Reports, Research Facility, University of Texas Health Science Center.
The purpose of this study was to perform a multicenter clinical trial to evaluate the behaviour of a composite resin (Glacier, SDI, Australia) and a newly formulated adhesive (PAAMA 2, SDI, Australia) for dentin and enamel surfaces.
The hybrid composite resin (Glacier, Southern Dental Industries, Bayswater, Victoria) was used in conjunction with the PAAMA 2 adhesive bonding system.
The 6 through 36 month results were found very favourable for the Glacier composite used with the PAAMA 2 adhesive system. No evidence of loss of anatomic form was observed and would suggest that the Glacier composite is extremely resistant to wear in these restorations.
Glacier, The Dental Advisor Plus, Vol. 16, No. 5, September/October 1996 TDA Plus Recommendation.
Glacier is a light-cured, microfill hybrid composite highly recommended for anterior and posterior restorations. It received an 86% approval rating.
Glacier has firm handling properties similar to dental amalgam. Consultants agreed that when first condensed, the composite was excellent in terms of non-stickiness and easy packing. The packability was especially appreciated when several additions of material were required. Dispensing, final shade match, finishing and final polish of Glacier all received good to excellent ratings. The majority of consultants indicated that Glacier was as good as or better than their present composite and they would purchase and recommend it to a colleague.
Bishop B., Clinical Trial of Glacier Composite resin (SDI). Dental School, University of Western Australia, May 1996.
Glacier is a Hybrid Composite. It can be used anteriorly or posteriorly. It is a light-cured, radiopaque material which is available in 12 shades. It has a 77% by weight inorganic filler content.
Four Class III cavities, anteriorly, were selected, which allowed Shade A2 to be used. Posteriorly, three Class I cavities were selected for the use of Glacier Composite Resin.
Anteriorly, standard cavity preparations were made with a 0.5 mm bevel. Posteriorly, Class I cavity preparations were made without a bevel. In the deeper preparations Calcium Hydroxide was placed in the proximity of the pulp. Light-curing Compomer Resin lining material was used for all preparations. Routine enamel etching procedures were used, and a bonding resin was applied to the enamel only.
Glacier was easy to dispense. It was not sticky, and was simple to manipulate. The shade A2 was especially good for younger patients. Light Curing of the Glacier composite resin was satisfactory within the recommended time. The final restorations gave a smooth lustre finish after polishing. It was found to be a highly satisfactory restorative material for both anterior and posterior restorations.
Fahl N., Trans-Surgical restorations of extensive Class IV defects in the anterior definition.
Direct bonding is the most commonly utilized treatment for conservative aesthetic restoration of the anterior dentition. Class IV defects require special attention due to their high incidence, particularly in young patients. One of the major challenges for the clinician in treating defects in this category is selecting the appropriate restorative composite resin material that emulates the physical and optical characteristics of dentin and enamel and conceal the fracture line at the tooth/composite interface. Class IV defects with margins violating the biologic width present another concern, since this violation often impedes the attainment of the correct anatomic contours. The learning objective of this article is to describe a technique for achieving a correct integration of the periodontium, the tooth structure, and the restorative composite resin material to achieve a high level of aesthetic excellence.
Glacier is recommended as an excellent composite resin suitable for artificial dentin build up.
Sarkar N. K., Iazzetti G., Moiseyeva R., and Cheuk S. C., Strength-Loss Associated with Hydrolytic Degradation of Commercial Composite Resins. LSU School of Dentistry, New Orleans, LA, USA, 1999.
The water-sorption of dental composites during oral exposure leads mainly to hydrolysis of silane-coupling and filler dissolution (Soderholm, 1981). The absorbed water diffusing internally causes damage not only to the external surface but also beneath the surface as well (Kalachandra, 1989; Wu et al., 1984; Roulet, 1987; Mair, 1991; O’Brien and Yee, 1979). The damage is manifested in vivo in the form of such defects as (a) interfacial debonding, (b) matrix-cracking, (c) holes and pores from detachment and dissolution of fillers, and (d) a porous subsurface layer. Defects in solids such as these act as stress-concentrators and are known to reduce their strength properties. In case of dental composites, such strength-loss is likely to limit their longevity. Information on the resistance of different commercial composites to strength-loss associated with degradation can be valuable in selecting the most stable material for the patient.
Glacier displayed one of the lowest levels of loss of strength.
Dhuru V, Benhamuerlaine M, (Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, USA and King Saud University College of Dentistry, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 2001) Radiopacity of Selected Tooth Colored Restorative Materials
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate sorption properties of selected tooth-coloured restorative materials. The materials used in the study were: a highly filled composite resin, Z100 (3M), a condensable composite; Glacier (SDI); a flowable composite, Wave (SDI); a glass ionomer, Ketac-Molar (ESPE); a resin modified glass ionomer, Vitremer (3M) and a polyacid modified composite, Compoglass (Vivadent).
From the results, Glacier showed the smallest loss in weight compared to other materials. The sorption properties appear to be influenced by the filler concentrations, type of the resin and the nature of the reaction products.
Al-Sharaa K. A., Watts D., Stickiness prior to setting of some light cured resin-composites, Dental Materials 19 (2003) 182-187.
Twelve commercial resin composites were selected to evaluate a method for deriving a laboratory measure of stickiness. Each material was placed in a cylindrical mold (v = 6.1 x 2.2 mm2 depth) held either at 23 or at 37oC. A flat-ended stainless-steel instrument was placed onto the surface of the unset sample with a force 350g. After 2 s it was moved vertically at 2 cm/s. This caused a sticky composite to be elevated to a maximum height between 0.2 and 1.8 mm until detachment from instrument occurred. The elevated material was immediately solidify by light curing at 6000 mW/cm2 for 40 s. These elevated profiles were mapped for both height and projected area of elevation. Both the projected heights and areas were evaluated as potential measures of stickiness.
Glacier has the second lowest stickiness behaviour out of the twelve materials tested.
Penugonda B., Evaluation of Expired Composite Materials Efficacy, New York University, USA, Brisbane IADR 2006, Abstract #2127.
With the recent FDA report that many prescription drugs retain their expiration dates, questions arise whether composites near or past their expiration dates are compromised? The aim was to determine whether expired resin-based composites are still viable for restorations.
Glacier was one of six expired composites tested and was found to be capable of normal discharge from the compules and had good handling characteristics. It also performed well and showed good hardness and depth of cure.
de Araujo Silva Gusmao G. Mario et al; The influence of storage time and pH variation on water sorption by different composite; p60-65, Indian Journal of Dental Research, 24(1) 2013,Ferderal University of Pernambuco, Brazil.
Aim: To assess the influence of storage time and pH cycling on water sorption by difeerent composite resins.
Materials: Nine resin brands were selected and divided into groups: G1- Rok (SDI), G2-Ice (SDI), G3-Glacier (SDI), G4-Z350 (3M/Espe), G6-TPH 3 (Dentsply), G7-Suprafill (SS White) and G9-Masterfill (Biodinamics)to particpate in the study.
Results: Overall Ice, Rok and Glacier have very low water absorption when compared to competitor brands such as Z350 (3M/Espe), Z250 (3M/Espe), Suprafill (SS White).
Wada H., Tarumi S., Narimatsu M., Ebisu S., In Vitro Estrogenicity of Resin Composites; J Dent Res 83(3):222-226, 2004.
There is evidence that abnormalities in the reproductive system of wildlife are caused by certain synthetic chemicals released into the environment. It is probable that similar abnormalities occur in humans. Previously, the estrogenic activity of dental sealants using a reporter gene assay, and found that a hydrophobic monomer, bisphenol A dimethacrylate (BPA-DMA) was associated wit the estrogenic properties of these commercial products (Tarumi et al., 2000). This study tested the hypothesis that commercial composites, which contain various monomers and additives, exhibit estrogenic activity in vitro.
Estrogenic activities of cured composites – Glacier was one of eighteen out of twenty four composites tested that showed no significant difference when compared to the control sample.