Naoum SJ, Mutzelburg PR, Shumack TG, Thode DJG, Martin FE, Ellakwa A; Polymerization shrinkage stress profile of newly developed dentin bonding agents in real time; Westmead Centre for Oral Health, Westmead Hospital, The University of Sydney, 2012.

Aim: To determine the effect of a newly developed glass ionomer based dentin adhesive has on polymerization contraction stress (rate and magnitude) generated at the margins of a restorative composite-adhesive system.

The five resin adhesive – composite systems demonstrated a similar polymerization shrinkage stress profile over the 6 hours of analysi; rapid contraction stress development during the first 220s before plateauing to less than 0.02MPa/s resulting in interface stress after 6 hours.

The Riva Bond LC -composite system exhibited a significantly lower polymerization contraction stress, relative to all of the resin adhesive-composite systems at 220s and 6 hours.


Within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that the use of glass ionomer based dentin adhesives can reduce the level and rate of polymerization contraction stress developed by adhesive-restorative composite systems. The observed significantly lower stress at the interface of the glass ionomer based adhesive-restorative composite system and the ability of the assessed glass ionomer based adhesive to accommodate a load comparable to that accommodated by conventional resin based adhesives prior to catastrophobic failure, provides potential for composite restorations bonded using glass ionomer adhesives to better accommodate critical and subcritical loading.


Freda N., Neglia M., Finkelman M., Kugel G., Perry R,; Comparison of Polymerization Stress Using RMGI Bond and Resin Adhesive; Abstract #1122, Seattle IADR, March 2013.

Aim: To compare maximum polymerization stress (MPa) and six hour polymerization stress (MPa) of a bulk filled composite bonded with a resin adhesive, a RMGIC bond, an co-cured with a RMGIC bond.


Conclusion: All results between maximum an average stress were statistically significant with group 2 yileding the lower stress. Groups 2 and 3 yeilded a statistically lower final stress compared to Group 1.


Samad-Zadeh A., Defuria C., Finkeman M., Towers J., Kugel G. and Perry R.; Effect of Anti-microbial Agents on Shear Bond Strength to Dentin; San Diego IADR #2932, 2011,Tufts University, Boston.

Aim: To investigate effects of application of Riva Star (SDI) antimicrobial agent on bond strengths of resin modified glass ionomer adhesive, Riva Bond LC (RMGI) with flowable composite to dentin.

Conclusion: The results indicate that application of Riva Star should not affect the shear bond strength of composite to dentin when Riva Bond LC is used as a bonding agent. Further testing is needed to make conclusive determination of the effects of this anti-microbial agent on bond strengths.


Burrow M., Pun S.Y., Hamama H.H.H., Yiu C.; Effect of Dentine Conditioning on Adhesion of RM-Glass Ionomer Cements; Seattle IADR #2381, 2013, University of Hong Kong.

Aim: To investigate the use of phosphoric acid as a surface treatment when bonding RM-GIC adhesives.

Results: The use of phosphoric acid etch for Fuji Bond (24.8 MPa) and Riva Bond LC (25 MPa) produced the highest strengths but were not statistically better than polyacrylic acid (PAA) or Cavity Conditioner(Fuji Bond 21 MPa). Ketac Nano showed statistically lower bond strengts for phosphoric acid (17.2 MPa), PAA (15.6) and the primer (14 MPa).

Conclusion: It would seem for RM-GICs a very short etch with phosphoric acid does not have an adverse effect on bond strength in the short-term, but no better than using 10% PAA.